Posts in Category: Archaeology

EDITED: MacGregor’s Typology of Bone and Antler Hair Accessories

I am on the hunt for a more accurate look for my hair and top-bits. So I plan to learn to carve bone and antler. A very good friend turned me onto MacGregor’s book on bone and antler carving. Wow, what an awesome book! It is a few hundred pages of detailed information on bone, antler, horn and ivory carving in history. One of my favorite sections is on how composite combs are made. This book should be in every artisan’s library.

The second section of the book is a typology of finds which is useful as a starting point for my research.  I do find some of his categories (Dark Age and Romanesque ‘Liturgical Combs’) a bit confusing and will try to put some parameters to each type. For the purposes of this article, I will consider MacGregor’s term “Dark Ages” to refer to what we call the “Migration Period” which was roughly from 400 to 800 A.D.

There is another typology described in Wietske Prummel; Hülya Halici; Annemieke Verbaas: The bone and antler tools from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terp . Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 3-1 (November 2011). The finds described in this article are of a narrow variety (finds from Wijnaldum-Tjitsma) than described by MacGregor who had a wider scope of time and geography. I will have to explore this more as I go along and cross-reference the two typologies somehow. There are more typologies that will also be cross-referenced as I continue the work.

This page will become a record of finds and extant pieces from each type. It will be updated as I find online sources, references, articles, etc. on the topic. Some of the sites will be in French, German. Please please let me know if I am interpreting the text incorrectly.

Source: MacGregor, Arthur (1985) Bone, antler, ivory and horn. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes & Noble Books

One-piece Combs: Typology

  • Germanic Single-sided Combs
  • Germanic’ Miniature Combs
  • Other Miniature Combs
  • Roman Double-sided Combs
    • Bone comb 1st Century, (Chlodwigplatz, 1. Jh. Aufnahme: RGM / Axel Thuünker DGPh)
      • double sided combs with two finely carved facing griffins, with an urn in the center axis.
  • Dark Age and Romanesque ‘Liturgical Combs’

Composite Combs: Typology

  • Single-sided Composite Combs
    • Round-backed Combs
    • Triangular-backed Combs
      • Bone crest with stag representation (German: Knochenkamm mit Hirschdarstellung)
        • Triangular-backed comb, Grave 74, Altendorf, Bamberg (aus dem Körpergrab 74 von Altendorf, Lkr. Bamberg)
        • A stag is carved in the triangular flange.
      • Triangular bone, with horse heads, with comb case
        • Rezső PUSZTAI, A Lébényi Germán fejdelmi sír (The Germanic chieftain’s grave from Lébény). Arrabona 8, 1966, 101, Figure 7 – István Bona, The Hun Empire (Budapest / Stuttgart 1991), 271-272.
    • Rectangular-backed ‘Handled’ Combs
    • Barred Zoomorphic Combs
    • Other Barred Combs
    • Asymmetrical Combs
    • Hogbacked Combs
    • High-backed ‘Celtic’ Combs
    • Combs with Deep, Thin Side-plates
    • Combs with Shallow, Thick Side-plates
    • Combs with Trapezoidal Side-plates
    • Combs with Rectangular-section Side-plates
    • False-ribbed Combs with Arched Backs
    • Handled Combs
  • Double-sided Composite Combs
    • Roman Period Combs (NOTE: I will use the end of the 5th century as the cut-off date for this category)
      •  Roman comb ( 4th/5th century AD ). Roman museum Kastell Boiotro ( Passau ).
        • Doubled sided comb with deeply incised diagonal lines, meeting in a lozenge shage at the center axis.
    • Dark Age Combs

Horn Combs
Comb Cases


  • Headless Pins
  • Conical-headed Pins with Flanged Shanks
  • Bead-and-reel Headed Pins
  • Spherical-headed Pins
  • Polygonal-headed Pins
  • Nail-headed Pins
  • Axe-headed Pins
  • Anthropomorphic  Pins
  • Zoomorphic Pins
  • Segmented-head Pins
  • Disc-headed  Pins
  • Small Disc-headed Pins
  • Cruciform-headed Pins
  • Loose Ring-headed Pins
  • Thistle-headed Pins
  • Expanded-head Pins
  • Pig Fibula Pins
  • Globular Pin-heads


  • Knochenkamm (German: bone comb)
  • Kreisaugenverzierung (German: bird’s eye circle decorations)

Resources to follow up on:

  • Ambrosiani, K. 1981, Viking Age combs, comb making and comb makers in the light of combs? from Birka and Ribe, Stockholm (Stockholm Studies in Archaeology 2).
  • Ulbricht, I. 1978, Die Geweihverarbeitung in Haithabu, Neumünster (Die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu 7).
  • Prummel, W., & andAnnemieke Verbaas, H. H. (2011). The bone and antler tools from the Wijnaldum-Tjitsma terpJournal of Archaeology in the Low Countries3, 65-106.

UPDATED – Pair of cloisonne appliques

These were found in Saint Denis, first decade 6th century. The garnet cloisonne was starting to disappear by this time. I don’t know the context of these appliques or which grave they came from. My book on the Saint Denis finds has gone walk about. Please post in the comments if you know. I guesstimate that these were belt fittings, but could be wrong. The center square appears to be turquoise ENAMEL OR GLASS.

Pair of 6th century appliques, Saint Denis


Reconstructing the Arnegunde Kaftan Card Woven Trim – some background

I have yet to find an image of the card weaving from the Arnegunde kaftan. I had hoped with the recent conservation work being completed, an image would surface. But no love there. So I will need to piece together the bits and pieces.

The most recent published mention of the card weaving is from Rast-Eicher’s article:

The tablet-woven band is made of at least 100 tablets and is about 6.5 cm wide. Nearly the entire width of one fragment was preserved – with just a few threads missing – but this one is otherwise hardly visible. The band is brocaded with a triple silk thread (z-spun) and displays a pattern of diagonals and lozenges (Fig. 33.3). (2010)

So color me rather intimidated by the “over 100 cards” thingy.  I will try a run at the design with fewer cards and make the piece in wool for a test run.

Sadly, Peter Collingwood did not talk about either the Arnegunde or the Bathilde/Bertille weavings in his book. He did describe the similar Snartemo V textiles from the 6th century. For a refresher here are the late 5th/early 6th century card weaving found at Chelles. Both of these were buried with high status women, so would probably be a good source for inspiration.

A wide piece of woolen cardweaving from Chelles





The following piece has similarities to the Snartemo V finds with the interlaced lozenges.

Woolen cardweaving from Chelles





Links to websites with similar styles of card weaving:



Rast-Eicher, A. (2010) Garments for a Queen. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X. 208-210


Terms: , , Arnegonde

a sketch – 5th c fibula – Saint Denis

I’m working on my class notes for the Merovingian Women’s clothing class that I teach. It keeps growing as I add information and will likely end up a book in a few years. Here’s one of the sketches of 5th century fibula from Grave 23, Saint Denis. These would have held a peplos closed at the shoulders. These fell out of use by mid-6th century.


Extant 6th century gore in a wool garment

Original website here.

6th century wool, colored with blue indigo. sewn-in gore.

The fragment found in a belt buckle was studied by Mr. H. Masurel and Mrs. S. Desrosiers. It has triangular pieces sewn together, giving expand gradually to the garment. The very fine fabric is woven in a clever cross 2/2 forming Argyle. The fiber analysis kindly performed by Mr. Witold Nowik, Laboratory of Historic Monuments Research shows that it was colored with indigo blue, or perhaps in another color obtained by hand-dyed (green?, Purple ?). Natural indigo was in antiquity from the leaves of a crucifer with yellow flowers, pastel. According to Caesar, “the Britons dye themselves with woad, which gives them a blue color, and renders, in battle, they look particularly terrifying.” Charlemagne recommends its culture in its fields. From the seventeenth century, was used to obtain indigo, indigo dye tropical whose power is higher than that of pastel

© musée des Antiquités nationales, © Direction des musées de France, 2004



Early medieval textile remains from settlements in the Netherlands. An evaluation of textile production

Just a quickie post to tell you about this article by Chrystel R. Brandenburgh.

Chrystel R. Brandenburgh: Early medieval textile remains from settlements in the Netherlands. An evaluation of textile production. Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries 2-1 (May 2010)


Many fragments of archaeological textiles have been found in the Netherlands during the last century. This article focuses on the way these textiles were made and used. How and where were textiles and clothes made and by whom? Was cloth production already a practice of specialists, acting in an extensive trade network, or was it a craft that mainly took place at the household level? To answer these questions 440 fragments of 265 different textiles, from 31 sites have been examined. Without exception these textiles were discovered in settlement context, mostly in the north of the country. The analysis of the remnants has resulted in the distinction of the different steps in the production process and insight in the way the textile products were used. The results show that many textiles are likely to have been produced at a household level. Only in a few cases were they made using special skills and tools or did the production process require much time. Some products, such as the finer fabrics, the fine needlework on several hats, fabrics with a raised nap, piled weaves and a veil-like garment, may be considered as the work of textile specialists. In this article it is argued that these specialists were either working for a patron or in an independent workshop.



Archeaology Magazine’s features Top 10 Discoveries of 2011

From the first domesticated dog to a rare female Mayan ruler, there were some very intriguing discoveries in 2011. Read about the Viking boat burial and ancient ancestors here.

UPDATED: Conjectural clothing construction


I’m getting ready to draft the pattern for my final garment of the Arnegunde outfit, the outer coat. I’ve finished the embroidery for the front opening and I’ve ordered the gold thread for the cuffs.

There are so few extant garments from this period making it hard to know how they were constructed. This is just a list of websites and resources for information on garment construction (and some other goodies).

Gallo-Roman tunic from Martres de Veyre. 1-2 C.

  • Originally published in <Audollent, A.  (1921) Les tombes des Martres-de-Veyre. Man, 21 (Nov.), 161-164.>
  •  Website in Russian by a woman who recreated the garments


Close up of a seam

A very fuzzy image of the Robe


Viking Age

  • Carolyn Priest-Dorman’s excellent website on Viking Tunic Construction which lists the following locations/eras:
    • Thorsbjerg (Scheleswig-Holstein, Germany), Migration Era;
    • Evebø (Norway), fifth century;
    • Birka (Sweden), ninth and tenth centuries;
    • Bjerringhøj (“Mammen,” Denmark), tenth century;
    • Hedeby (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), tenth and eleventh centuries;
    • Jorvík (the Danelaw in England) and Dublin (Ireland), tenth and eleventh centuries; and
    • Viborg (Denmark), eleventh century

Persian Caftan


ETA: Correction of translation in second paragraph. Thanks, Catherine!

Please see the original article for more information and to see images.

par James MOTTEAU* Mots-clefs : Habillement, Haut Moyen-Age. Key-words : Clothing, Dark Ages.

Lors de la découverte de la sépulture 6, en 1973, 20 prélèvements de textiles ont été effectués à l’emplacement du corps, des épaules aux genoux ; il faut leur ajouter un fragment de lanière en cuir qui maintenait une bouclette sous un genou et des restes de chaussures (Lelong 1976 : 220). Une étude préalable sur 12 échantillons a indiqué la présence de lin et de soie éventuellement associés en armures toiles et serge (MOTTEAU 1984 : 264). Les analyses complètes ont permis de préciser le nombre des tissages, plus ou moins distendus selon les prélèvements, et de déterminer leur succession sur le corps.

English translation: Upon discovery of the tomb 6, 1973, 20 textile samples were performed at the location of the body, from shoulders to knees, you have to add a piece of leather strap that held a buckle under the knee and leftover shoes (Lelong 1976: 220). A preliminary study of 12 samples indicated the presence of linen and silk may be associated with plain weave and serge (MOTTEAU 1984: 264). Full scans have clarified the number of weaving, more or less distended as samples, and determine their sequence on the body.

1. ETUDE DES TEXTILES. A l’exclusion des bas, tous les tissus se retrouvent des épaules aux genoux. Au contact de la peau apparaissent des restes d’une toile de soie presque entierement décomposée dont le nombre d’épaisseurs reste mal défini. Au-dessus, sont préservées 2 ou 3 épaisseurs d’une toile de soie formée de fils en légère torsion Z qui varient de 18 à 35 par centimètre pour la chaîne et de 20 à 35 pour la trame ; aux endroits où la distension semble absente, la moyenne par centimetre s’établit à 18 fils pour la chaîne et 22 pour la trame. Son aspect blanchâtre, lorsqu’elle est protégée, vire le plus souvent au brun (Fig. 1).

English Translation: With the exception of the hose, all fabrics are from shoulders to knees. In contact with the skin appear the remains of a silk fabric almost completely decomposed, the number of layers is unclear. Above, are preserved two or three thicknesses of cloth made __of silk thread in slight twist of Z ranging from 18 to 35 per centimeter in the warp and from 20 to 35 for the weft, where the distension seems to be absent the average per centimeter son is 18 and 22 for the chain to the weft. It is whitish, when protected, most often turns to brown (Fig. 1).

La soie est recouverte d’un ottoman formé de 2 épaisseurs, d’aspect brunâtre. Les fils de chaîne, en lin, sont torsadés 2 à 2 en S ; les fils de trame, en soie, cachent presque totalement la chaîne ; ce tissu côtelé est constitué de 10 à 14 fils de chaîne et d’environ 30 fils de trame au centimètre. La face la plus externe présente des motifs bleus, des épaules vers les genoux, avec une bande unie en bas, obtenus par impression probablement directe d’indigo (non caractérisé par analyse chimique) (Fig. 2). English translation: The silk is covered with an ottoman made __of two layers, brownish appearance. The thread of the warp, linen, are twisted in S 2-2, the thread of fabric, silk, almost completely hiding the warp, the ribbed fabric is made of from 10 to 14 warp threads and about 30 weft threads to the centimeter. The outermost face of this blue motifs, from shoulders to knees, with a solid band at the bottom, probably obtained by direct printing of indigo (not characterized by chemical analysis) (Fig. 2). Au niveau du bassin et le long de la jambe droite, les prélèvements renferment les restes d’une cordelette enroulée au moins 2 fois et qui adhère à l’ottaman. De diamètre voisin de 3 mm, elle est formée de faisceaux de fibres de lin et de soie torsadés de façon indépendante 2 à 2 en S puis regroupés en torsion S par brin ; 2 brins torsadés Z constituent cette cordelette.

English translation: The pelvis and along the right leg, the samples contain the remains of a cord wound at least 2 times and adhering to the Ottoman. In diameter around 3 mm, is made __up of bundles of flax and silk twisted independently 2-2 in S and S grouped per strand twist, 2 strand twisted cord that Z is. * Laboratoire d’Archéologie Urbaine de Tours, Château de Tours, 25 quai d’Orléans, 37000 TOURS.

Une toile de lin, double, dont 2 pièces sont cousues au point caché (Fig. 3), recouvre l’ottoman et la cordelette. Les fils individuels, en torsion Z, sont torsadés, 2 à 2 en S pour la chaîne ; leur nombre oscille entre 10 et 18 par centimètre pour la chaîne et entre 15 et 26 pour la trame. L’aspect général de ce tissue relativement grossier est brun (Fig. 4).

English Translation: A linen cloth, double, 2 pieces are sewn at the point hidden (Fig. 3), covering the Ottoman and the cord. The thread individual torsional Z, are twisted, 2-2 S for the chain, and their number is between 10 and 18 per centimeter for the warp and between 15 and 26 for the weft. The general appearance of this tissue is relatively coarse brown (Fig. 4).

Des fragments brunâtres de sergé recouvrent le tout. Les fils de chaîne, en lin, sont très souvent décomposés ; les fils de trame, en soie, sont en torsion Z. L’armure présente environ 22 fils par centimètre dans les 2 sens. La bordure est tissée en toile sur 4 rangs (Fig. 5, schéma reconstitué à partir de plusieurs échantillons).

English translation: Fragments of brown twill cover everything. The thread of the warp, linen, are often broken, and the thread of fabric, silk, are torsion Z. The armor has about 22 per centimeter thread in 2 directions. The border is woven fabric of 4 rows (Fig. 5, diagram reconstructed from several samples).

Une toile de soie adhère sur une face des cuirs et s’intercale entre la peau et les chaussures. Les fibres, en légère torsion Z, sont au nombre de 17 à 18 par centimètre pour la chaîne et de 22 pour la trame.

English translation: A web of silk on one side adheres to the leather and inserted between the skin and shoes. The fibers, a slight twist Z, are among 17 to 18 per centimeter in the warp and 22 for the weft.

2. ESSAI DE RECONSTITUTION DE L’HABILLEMENT. Ces déterminations permettent de proposer une reconstitution de l’habillement. La présence d’une chemise en soie est possible mais non prouvée de façon certaine ; la robe en ottoman, doublée de soie, était serrée au niveau de la ceinture par une cordelette dont les extrémités pendaient librement le long de la jambe droite. Sur l’ensemble, était passé un manteau en sergé, doublé de lin. La femme portrait des bas en soie maintenus par les lanières de cuir portant les bouclettes.

English translation: These determinations allow a reconstruction of clothing. The presence of a silk shirt is possible but not proven with certainty, the Ottoman dress, lined with silk, was tied at the waist by a cord, the ends hanging loose down the right leg. On the whole, had passed a twill coat, lined with linen. Portrait of a woman silk stockings held by leather straps with the loop.

Pourtant des questions découlant de la manière d’échantillonner la sépulture restent sans réponse : présence ou non de manches à la robe et /ou au manteau, limite supérieure des bas, forme des décors de la robe. Le mauvais état de conservation des textiles explique cependant en partie ceci. Aucune trace visible de voile, sur lequel auraient été cousus les fils d’or (Lelong 1976 : Fig. 5), n’a été repérée au niveau de la tête lors de la fouille ; cette hypothèse peut être raisonnablement retenue. De même, aucun prélèvement n’a révélé la présence de tissu assimilable à un linceul. La détermination de la nature des cuirs, en trop mauvais état de conservation, n’a pu être menée à bien (observations de c. chahine, Centre de Recherches sur la Conservation des Documents Graphiques – Paris).

English translation: Yet questions arising as to sample the burial remain unanswered: whether or not the sleeves to the dress and / or mantle, upper limit of the low form of decoration of the dress. The poor state of conservation of textiles, however, partly explains this. No visible trace of veil, where the thread would have been sewn with gold (Lelong 1976: Fig. 5), were located in the head during the excavation, this hypothesis can be reasonably successful. Similarly, no samples revealed the presence of tissue similar to a shroud. The determination of the nature of leather, in too bad condition, has been completed (ie observations Chahine, Research Center on the Conservation of Documents Charts – Paris).

Notes et documents 257 Faute de nombreuses études sur des sepultures habillées de l’époque mérovingienne, notre reference la plus complète est représentée par la tombe d’Aregonde à Saint-Denis ; nous y retrouvons un type d’habillement voisin bien que plus riche (France Lanord 1979). En Région Centre, pendant le Haut Moyen-Age, la soie, abondante dans les diverses armures de Perrusson, reste un produit rare et importé (ferdiere 1984 : 216). Ces éléments conferment le rang social élevé de la personne inhumée dans le sarcophage 6 de Perrusson mais n’apportent pas de précisions quant à son origine et à son statut dans la Société de l’époque (LELONG 1976 : 228-229).

English translation: Without many studies on the graves of the Merovingian period dress, our most complete reference is represented by the tomb of Saint-Denis Arnegunde, where we find a type of clothing that richer neighbor (France Lanord 1979) . In Central Region during the Middle Ages, silk, abundant in various weaves of Perrusson, remains a rare and imported (Ferdière 1984: 216). This confirms the high social status of the person buried in the sarcophagus of 6 Perrusson but do not provide details as to its origin and its status in the Society at the time (Lelong 1976: 228-229).

UPDATED: France Lanord, A. (1962) Das grab der Arnegundis in Saint-Denis. Germania. 40. 341-359.

So I am finally getting to translating some of the non-English articles that have been sitting on my shelf for awhile. I have no claim to being able to speak any of these languages so I use Google translate and several different online dictionaries. I am concentrating on those articles specifically mentioning Arnegunde (Arnegonde, Arnegundis) as that is my main interest at this point.

This first article is by A, France-Lanord, who did much of the initial work on the gravefinds for Arnegunde, who was buried under the Saint-Denis Cathedral. Excavations took place in 1959. The textiles have since been re-conserved, which I have talked about in other posts (or I should talk about them, anyway)

Please feel free to suggest revisions and improvements in the translations in the comment section.


France Lanord, A. (1962) Das grab der Arnegundis in Saint-Denis. Germania. 40. 341-359.

Pg 352

Goldstickerei (Abb. 3, 10; Taf. 31,7). Diese Stickereien bestehen aus feinen Goldfäden, die auf eine Borte aus Seide aufgenäht sind, welche ihrerseits auf dem Seiden-Satinband appliziert war, mit dem die Manschetten der Tunika verziert waren 9. Die Fäden sind aus einem sehr dünnen Blattgoldband gefertigt, 0,25 mm stark und 0,8 mm breit, sind außerordentlich regelmäßig und waren spiralförmig um einen starken, heute verschwundenen Seidenfaden gewickelt. Es kamen etwa 13 bis 14 Drehungen auf einen Zentimeter. Der Durchmesser der Goldfäden erreichte etwa 0,45 mm bei einer Länge von bis zu 150 mm. Sie wurden auf die Seidenborte in feinen Stichen mit einem sehr dünnen Seidenfaden aufgenäht, wobei die Stiche mehr oder weniger nahe beieinander lagen, je nach der Art des Musters.

Der Dekor (Abb 5, 1-3) setzt sich aus einer Reihe von Rosetten zusammen, die in ein rechteckiges Feld einbeschrieben sind und von sphärischen Dreiecken begeleitet werden. Auf einer einzigen Seite läuft noch ein Fries mit Dreiecken, die dachziegelartig gegeneinander versetzt und mit einer Spirale ausgelegt sind, welche dem Kontur des Dreiecks folgt. Die Rosetten zeigen drei Varianten:

  1. Blüte mit rundem Herz und acht trapezförmigen Blütenblättern;
  2. Blüte mit rundem Herz und sechs spitzovalen Blättern, welche durch spärische Dreiecke mit einbeschriebener Spirale voneinander getrennt werden;
  3. Krieis, dessen innerer Rand mit kleinen Dreiecken verziert ist, die mit einer Spirale ausgelegt sind; im Innern des Kreises finden sich (von links nach rechts): eine kleine, senkrecht stehende Mandel, eine große, ebenfalls senkrecht stehende Halbmandel (mit der geraden Seite nach links) und drei kleine Kerne, die fächerförmig in der rechten Hälfte des Kreises verteilt sind.

9. Nachdem die Borten aus den sie umgebenden Resten herausgezogen worden waren, kam es darauf an, sie zu festigen. Ich entschloß mich nach sorgfältiger Prüfung aller Möglichkeiten, sie auf eine feste Unterlage zu übertragen. Es war wichtig, die Masse der Goldfaden zu entwirren, ohne dabei die ursprüngliche Ordnung zu zerstören. Der unterste Stoff besaß keinerlei Festigkeit mehr und zerfiel bei der geringsten Berührung zu Staub. Andererseits bot aber auch die Elastizität und Widerstandsfähigkeit der Goldfäden Schwierigkeiten bei ihrer Glättung. Es wäre unmöglich gewesen, diese Stickereien vor einer Festigung zu berühren – übriggeblieben wäre dann nur ein Knäuel von Goldfäden. Man konnte die gestickten Teile dadurch etwas festigen, daß einige Tropfen einer heißen Mischung von Wachs, Parafinn und Dammar-Harz aufgeträufelt wurden. Dann wurde die Borte von der Manschette gelost und die sichtbaren Teile in der Warme mit einem wachsgetränkten Seidenpapier abgedeckt. Nach dieser ersten Festigung wurden Ober- und Unterseite getrennt, die einzelnen Teile der Stickerei abgenommen, entwirrt, geglättet und dann auf eine provisorische Unterlage übertragen. Dieser Arbeitsvorgang wurde standing bei Wärms vorgenommen, sie es auf einem Heiztisch, unter Infrarotlicht oder bei Warmluft, wie es die Umstände ergaben. So konnte fast der gesamte Bestand an Stickerei geborgen und schließlich auf die endgültige Unterlage ubertragen werden. Wir wählten dazu ein wachsgetränktes Seidenpapier, weil dies sich dauerhafter als Stoff erweisen hat. Außerdem bereitet es keinerlei Schwierigkeiten, die Stickerei nötigenfalls wieder auf eine andere Unterlage zu übertragen. Hierzu braucht nur die Unterseite des jetzigen Trägers erwärmt zu werden, wonach die Stickerei auf eine neue Unterlage gleiten kann.

English Translation:

Gold embroidery (Fig. 3, 10, pl 31.7). These embroideries are made of fine gold threads are sewn on a border of silk, which in turn was applied to the silk-satin ribbon, with the cuffs of the tunic was decorated 9. The threads are made of very thin gold foil tape, 0.25 mm thick and 0.8 mm wide, are very regular and were spirally around a strong, now-vanished silk thread wrapped. There were about 13 to 14 turns to an inch. The diameter of the threads of gold reached about 0.45 mm with a length of up to 150 mm. They were sewn onto the lace trim in fine stitches with a very thin silk thread, with the stitches more or less close to one another, depending on the type of pattern.

The decoration (Fig. 5, 1-3) is composed of a series of rosettes, which are inscribed in a rectangular box and are accompanied by spherical triangles. On a single page or a frieze runs with triangles that are offset from each other like roof tiles and inlaid with a spiral, which follows the contour of the triangle. The rosettes show three variants:

  1. Heart flower with round petals and eight trapezoidal-shaped;
  2. Heart flower with round and six pointed oval leaves, which are separated by spherical triangles inscribed spiral from one another;
  3. Circle whose inner edge is decorated with small triangles, which are designed with a spiral; inside the circle are (from left to right): a small, vertical almond, a large, well vertical half almond (with the straight side left) and three small seeds that are spread like a fan in the right half of the circle.

9. After the borders of the surrounding residues had been removed, it was important to strengthen it. I decided after carefully examining all the possibilities to transfer them to a solid surface. It was important to untangle the mass of gold thread, without destroying the original order. The bottom material had no more strength and crumbled to dust at the slightest touch. On the other hand, it also offered the flexibility and resilience of the gold threads of their difficulties in smoothing. It would have been impossible to touch the embroidery before consolidation – would be left only one skein of gold thread. You could consolidate the embroidered parts by something that a few drops were dripped on a hot mixture of wax, dammar resin and para-Finn. Then, the border was dissolved by the collar and cover the visible parts in the heat with a wax-soaked tissue paper. After this first consolidation were the top and bottom separately, removed the pieces of embroidery, untangled, smoothed and then transferred to a temporary base. This operation was performed in standing heat, she is on a hot stage, under infrared light or hot air, as it were the circumstances. Was able to almost the entire collection of embroidery and are eventually rescued transferred to the final document. We chose to use a wax-impregnated tissue paper, because it has proved itself more durable than fabric. It also poses no difficulty, if necessary, transfer the embroidery to back on a different surface. For that, only the underside of the beam current needs to be heated, after which the embroidery can slide on a new document.

Pg 353

Die Zwickel zwischen den Rosetten sind mit spharischen Dreieken ausgefullt, die in sich wieder eine Spirale zeigen. Die 30 mm briete Borte ist auf jeder Seite mit langen, geraden Goldfaden eingefaßt und wird an den beiden Enden durch Faden abgeschlossen, die senkrecht zum Lauf der Borte stehen. Heute sind nur noch siebzehn Rosetten erhalten, wahrend es ursprunglich 18 oder sogar 19 waren, womit wir auf eine Länge (jetzt 35 cm) von 37 oder 38 cm kamen. Auf Grund der großen Schwierigkeiten, mit der die Restaurierung dieses Stuckes verbunden war, ist die jetzige Anordnung der Rosetten nicht mehr die originale – sie mußten vielmehr so angeordnet sein, daß niemals zwei gleichartig verzierte Rosetten aufeinander folgen. Obwohl wir in diesem Bericht grundsatzlich kein Vergleichsmaterial heranziehen wollen, scheint uns der Hinweis doch wichtig, daß Stucke bis heute die einzigen ihrer Art sind. Die wenigen Goldbrokatreste, sie Saint-Denis wahrend der Grabungen von E. Salin zum Vorschein kamen, sind vollig anders und auch fast vergangen. 10

10. Vgl. Salin, Les Tombes gallo-romaines 214-223 und Taf. 13-14 u. 17.

English translation:

The spandrels between the rosettes are filled out with spherical triangles, which show again in a spiral. The 30 mm roasted (?) border is bordered on each side with long, straight and gold thread on both ends closed by thread, which are perpendicular to the running of the edging. Today, only seventeen receive rosettes, while there were originally 18 or even 19, so we came up with a long (now 35 cm) of 37 or 38 cm. Because of the great difficulties with the restoration of the stucco was connected, the current arrangement of roses is not the original – but they had to be arranged such that no two identically decorated rosettes consecutive. Although we basically want to use in this report, no reference material, the note seems to us important that pieces are still the only ones of their kind. The few remnants of cloth of gold, they came Saint-Denis during the excavations of E. Salin to light are completely different and almost passed.

Photograph of the cuff

A fairly accurate graph of the cuff